A. Both (1) and (2):
- Recurrent unexpected panic attacks.
- At least one of the attacks has been followed by 1 month (or more) of one (or more) of the following:
- Persistent concern about having additional attacks.
- Worry about the implications of the attack or its consequences (e.g. losing control, having a heart attack, ‘going crazy’).
- A significant change in behaviour related to the attacks.
B. Absence of agoraphobia/presence of agoraphobia.
C. The panic attacks are not caused by the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g. a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g. hyperthyroidism).
D. The panic attacks are not better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as social phobia (e.g. occurring on exposure to feared social situations), specific phobia (e.g. exposure to a specific phobic situation), OCD (e.g. on exposure to dirt in someone with an obsession about contamination), PTSD (e.g. in response to stimuli associated with a severe stressor) or separation anxiety disorder (e.g. in response to being away from home or close relatives).